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Proposal ID Mullan_20

Date of Proposal



Bartol Research Institute

D. J. Mullan
Bartol Research Institute
University of Delaware
Newark DE 19716




Magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere may generate
sufficient energy to heat material to coronal temperatures, and
sufficient momentum to contribute to the solar wind. Bright points
(BP's) which are visible in X-rays and EUV provide direct evidence
that ENERGY is being released at reconnection sites: the
reconnection may occur either as a result of a kink instability in
a closed loop, or as a result of a random encounter of oppositely
directed flux tubes. The fact that MOMENTUM is also being
generated in BP's was the subject of a number of papers in the
1980's involving observations in the chromosphere (CaII K),
transition region (CIV), and corona (soft X-rays). These observations
indicated that momentum flux is largest in those bright points
which lie in coronal holes.

The morphology of the flows which emerge from reconnection sites
has been the subject of MHD modelling. In a gross sense, the
outflows are in the form of jets which are ejected at about the
Alfven speed $v_A$. In BP conditions ($N_e$ $\approx$ $10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$),
fields of order 10 G create $v_A$ of order 200 km/sec. Within the
outflow jets, plasma may be trapped in discrete structures (plasmoids)
in the vicinity of O-type neutral points. (The O-type neutral points
are inevitably created at any reconnection site where fluctuations
are present in the initial conditions: smooth outflows are
idealized cases which probably have very little to do with the
real solar atmosphere.) The plasmoids are not simply swept along
with the flow: their diamagnetic nature has the effect that in the
presence of diverging field, they accelerate. (This is equivalent
to the process in which a single charged particle conserves its
magnetic moment by accelerating in a diverging field.)

Proposal: search for evidence of discrete structures in mass
outflows from BP's. The best candidates are BP's in coronal holes,
but others should also show the effect. Initially, the flow speed
of the ejecta should be comparable to $v_A$: estimate $v_A$ using
emission measures and spatial dimensions to derive local $N_e$,
and magnetograms with extrapolation to corona to estimate $B$. The
surest sign that plasmoids are present would be provided by
detecting evidence for acceleration of the flows in the direction
of weakening $B$. The magnitude of the acceleration is determined
by the spatial gradient of $B$: this can also be predicted from the
extrapolated field structure over the BP. We know that in a
global dipole field, the divergence is such that plasmoids can
cause the entire solar wind to accelerate up to 400 km/sec within
2 solar radii of the surface: in an individual jet emerging from a
localized BP, the acceleration is expected to be more rapid than
this, and certainly more rapid than that which the local gradients
of gas pressure can provide.

Dr J. Gurman


Mass Ejection


Plasmoids from reconnection sites: contribution to solar wind mass flux

update added on 2003/01/14 at 22:51:32
Force-Free TIME-Harmonic Plasmoids by Jack Nachamkin. PL-TR-92-3044
Phillips Laboratory. " It will be shown that a critical frequency exist,below which the current cannot be carried by electrons and the plasmoid remain stable".

My proposal is to find the frequencies plasma will couple to the Continuum (torsion fields). Once we learn that then produce two counter rotating plasma fields and your effect should be of space/time flux. A doorway into warp technology. Hands on type!
What you should produce is an extension of the distance of the speed of light for the area under dilation (between the two rings). First generation true warp drive. Thank you for your time.
Warren York

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