Limb Corrections to the Path Limits: Graze Zones

The northern and southern umbral limits provided in this publication were derived using the Moon's center of mass and a mean lunar radius. They have not been corrected for the Moon's center of figure or the effects of the lunar limb profile. In applications where precise limits are required, Watts's limb data must be used to correct the nominal or mean path. Unfortunately, a single correction at each limit is not possible since the Moon's libration in longitude and the contact points of the limits along the Moon's limb each vary as a function of time and position along the umbral path. This makes it necessary to calculate a unique correction to the limits at each point along the path. Furthermore, the northern and southern limits of the umbral path are actually paralleled by a relatively narrow zone where the eclipse is neither penumbral nor umbral. An observer positioned here will witness a slender solar crescent that is fragmented into a series of bright beads and short segments whose morphology changes quickly with the rapidly varying geometry between the limbs of the Moon and the Sun. These beading phenomena are caused by the appearance of photospheric rays that alternately pass through deep lunar valleys and hide behind high mountain peaks as the Moon's irregular limb grazes the edge of the Sun's disk. The geometry is directly analogous to the case of grazing occultations of stars by the Moon. The graze zone is typically five to ten kilometers wide and its interior and exterior boundaries can be predicted using the lunar limb profile. The interior boundaries define the actual limits of the umbral eclipse (both total and annular) while the exterior boundaries set the outer limits of the grazing eclipse zone.

Table 6 provides topocentric data and corrections to the path limits due to the true lunar limb profile. At five minute intervals, the table lists the Moon's topocentric horizontal parallax, semi- diameter, relative angular velocity of the Moon with respect to the Sun and lunar libration in longitude. The Sun's center line altitude and azimuth is given, followed by the azimuth of the umbral path. The position angle of the point on the Moon's limb which defines the northern limit of the path is measured counter-clockwise (i.e., eastward) from the north point on the limb. The path corrections to the northern and southern limits are listed as interior and exterior components in order to define the graze zone. Positive corrections are in the northern sense while negative shifts are in the southern sense. These corrections (minutes of arc in latitude) may be added directly to the path coordinates listed in Table 3. Corrections to the center line umbral durations due to the lunar limb profile are also included and they are mostly positive. Thus, when added to the central durations given in Tables 3 4 5, and 7, a slightly longer central total phase is predicted.

Detailed coordinates for the zones of grazing eclipse at each limit for all land based sections of the path are presented in Table 8. Given the uncertainties in the Watts data, these predictions should be accurate to 0.3 arc seconds. The interior graze coordinates take into account the deepest valleys along the Moon's limb which produce the simultaneous second and third contacts at the path limits. Thus, the interior coordinates define the true edge of the path of totality. They are calculated from an algorithm which searches the path limits for the extreme positions where no photospheric beads are visible along a 30° segment of the Moon's limb, symmetric about the extreme contact points at the instant of maximum eclipse. The exterior graze coordinates are somewhat arbitrarily defined and calculated for the geodetic positions where an unbroken photospheric crescent of 60° in angular extent is visible at maximum eclipse.

In Table 8, the graze zone latitudes are listed every 30' in longitude (at sea level) and include the time of maximum eclipse at the northern and southern limits as well as the path's azimuth. To correct the path for locations above sea level, Elev Fact is a multiplicative factor by which the path must be shifted north perpendicular to itself (i.e., perpendicular to path azimuth) for each unit of elevation (height) above sea level. To calculate the shift, a location's elevation is multiplied by the Elev Fact value. Positive values (usually the case for eclipses in the Southern Hemisphere) indicate that the path must be shifted north. For instance, if one's elevation is 1000 meters above sea level and the Elev Fact value is +0.20, then the shift is +200m (= 1000m x +0.20). Thus, the observer must shift the path coordinates 200 meters in a direction perpendicular to the path and in a negative or southerly sense.

The final column of Table 8 lists the Scale Fact (km/arc second). This scaling factor provides an indication of the width of the zone of grazing phenomena, due to the topocentric distance of the Moon and the projection geometry of the Moon's shadow on Earth's surface. Since the solar chromosphere has an apparent thickness of about 3 arc seconds, and assuming a Scale Fact value of 2 km/arc second, then the chromosphere should be visible continuously during totality for any observer in the path who is within 6 kilometers (=2x3) of each interior limit. However, the most dynamic beading phenomena occurs within 1.5 arc seconds of the Moon's limb. Using the above Scale Factor, this translates into the first 3 kilometers inside the interior limits. But observers should position themselves at least 1 kilometer inside the interior limits (south of the northern interior limit or north of the southern interior limit) in order to ensure that they are inside the path due of to small uncertainties in Watts's data and the actual path limits.

For applications where the zones of grazing eclipse are needed at a higher frequency in longitude interval, tables of coordinates every 7.5' in longitude are available via a special web site for the total solar eclipse of 2001.

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